Mapping Early American Elections

New Jersey General Assembly, 1801

In 1801, New Jersey elected thirty-nine assemblymen to the state’s General Assembly. At least sixteen were Federalists, and at least sixteen were Democratic-Republicans.

New Jersey’s state legislature was comprised of an upper house called the Legislative Council and a lower house called the General Assembly. Each of the state’s thirteen counties elected one councilor and three assemblymen to the legislature. Elections for both houses were held annually.

In 1801, New Jersey allowed unmarried women (single and widowed) and free blacks (who met the property requirement) to vote. New Jersey was the only state to allow women to vote, and one of a few that allowed African Americans to vote. However, this unique makeup of the electorate only lasted a short time. An 1807 law did away with property restrictions, but also limited the franchise to white males.

This era of New Jersey politics was marked by intense party competition between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans. New Jersey’s 1801 General Assembly election helps illustrate a shift in party control in New Jersey’s state and federal offices. During the 1790s, New Jersey almost exclusively elected Federalist candidates to state and federal office. However after 1800, New Jersey Republicans gained control of the state legislature, the governorship, and the congressional delegation. On October 20, 1801, following the state’s annual elections, Trenton newspaper The True American noted that “the Federal Ticket has succeeded, by majorities much less than last year,” especially in several traditionally Federalist counties like Middlesex, Gloucester, and Burlington. Other counties such as Hunterdon, who had elected Federalists by a large majority of the vote the previous year, now elected “the Republican ticket for Members of the State Legislature.”

In December 1801, a special election was held in Morris County due to a tie vote for the third Assembly seat. Cornelius Voorhees was elected to fill the third seat.

District Candidate Party Vote Percentage Elected
Bergen Peter Ward Federalist 953 19%
Bergen Thomas Blanch Federalist 949 18.9%
Bergen John Dey Federalist 932 18.6%
Bergen Henry Van Dolsen Democratic-Republican 737 14.7%
Bergen Benjamin Blackledge Democratic-Republican 724 14.4%
Bergen David P. Haring Democratic-Republican 719 14.3%
Burlington William Pearson Federalist 1,783 67.9%
Burlington David Wright Democratic-Republican 841 32.1%
Burlington Job Lippincott Federalist
Burlington John Tracey Federalist
Burlington William Coxe Federalist
Cumberland George Burgin Democratic-Republican 918 31.9%
Cumberland Azel Pierson Democratic-Republican 911 31.6%
Cumberland Jonathan Bowen Federalist 529 18.4%
Cumberland John Sheppard, Jr. Federalist 522 18.1%
Essex Jabez Parkhurst Democratic-Republican 1,980 27.5%
Essex Amos Harrison Democratic-Republican 1,425 19.8%
Essex Ralph Post Democratic-Republican 1,279 17.8%
Essex William Gould Federalist 867 12.1%
Essex Abraham Wooley Federalist 722 10%
Essex Abraham Speer Democratic-Republican 550 7.6%
Gloucester Samuel W. Harrison Federalist 1,115 17.1%
Gloucester Samuel French Federalist 1,104 16.9%
Gloucester Isaac Mickle Democratic-Republican 1,098 16.8%
Gloucester Abel Clement Federalist 1,087 16.7%
Gloucester Amos Cooper Democratic-Republican 1,074 16.5%
Gloucester Levi Rogers Democratic-Republican 1,044 16%
Hunterdon Peter Gordon Democratic-Republican 1,853 14%
Hunterdon Joseph Hankinson Democratic-Republican 1,787 13.5%
Hunterdon John Haas Democratic-Republican 1,779 13.4%
Hunterdon Nathan Stout Democratic-Republican 1,727 13%
Hunterdon Benjamin Van Cleve Federalist 1,588 12%
Hunterdon Stephen Burrowes Federalist 1,586 12%
Hunterdon Simon Wyckoff Federalist 1,580 11.9%
Hunterdon Joseph King Federalist 1,351 10.2%
Middlesex John Neilson Federalist 1,141 19.2%
Middlesex Ercuries Beatty Federalist 1,130 19%
Middlesex Gershom Dunn Federalist 1,130 19%
Middlesex John Morgan Democratic-Republican 856 14.4%
Middlesex Phineas Manning Democratic-Republican 856 14.4%
Middlesex Joseph Randolph Democratic-Republican 836 14.1%
Monmouth John A. Scudder Democratic-Republican 1,270 19.7%
Monmouth Peter Knott Democratic-Republican 1,220 19%
Monmouth James Cox Democratic-Republican 1,175 18.3%
Monmouth David Gordon Federalist 958 14.9%
Monmouth William Lloyd Federalist 929 14.4%
Monmouth Joseph Stillwell Federalist 885 13.7%
Morris Aaron Kitchell 1,810 33.2%
Morris William Corwin 1,776 32.5%
Morris Jesse Upson 936 17.1%
Morris Jonathan Ogden 936 17.1%
Somerset William MacEowen Federalist 1,356 29.1%
Somerset James Van Duyn Federalist 1,231 26.4%
Somerset Frederick Frelinghuysen Federalist 1,187 25.4%
Somerset Alexander Kilpatrick Democratic-Republican 447 9.6%
Somerset James Stryker Democratic-Republican 444 9.5%
Sussex Levi Howell Democratic-Republican 1,587 16.8%
Sussex Silas Dickerson Democratic-Republican 1,521 16.1%
Sussex Abraham Shaver Democratic-Republican 1,501 15.8%
Sussex John Linn Democratic-Republican 1,402 14.8%
Sussex John Gustin Federalist 998 10.5%
Sussex Joseph Gaston Federalist 846 8.9%
Sussex Jedediah Sayre Federalist 844 8.9%
Sussex Valentine Bidleman Federalist 758 8%

In most cases, only candidates who received more than 5 percent of the vote in a district are reported. Other candidates are reported as a group, but only if they in aggregate received more than 5 percent of the vote. In addition, percentages for each district may not add up to 100 percent due to rounding. The term Dissenting Republican includes various breakaway factions of the Democratic-Republican party.

New Nation Votes Data

Mapping Early American Elections is generously funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and developed by the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University.

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